AGU 期刊一周Research Spotlights (May 26~June 01, 2016)

发布时间:2016-6-2 14:55:43 点击次数:708

I. Atmospheric Sciences

1. Chemical Boosts Ozone Production over Southern China

The presence of nitryl chloride in polluted urban air can enhance the production of ozone by up to 41%, according to a new modeling study constrained by ground-based measurements.

2. Storms Cause Infrequent Turbulence for Aircraft, New Study Finds

Scientists using lightning sensors to automate air-turbulence detection have found evidence that storms jostle aircraft much less than previously thought.


II. Geology & Geophysics

1. Does Geothermal Exploitation Trigger Earthquakes in Tuscany?

For the past 25 years, power production has been accompanied by a small but steady increase in seismicity near geothermal wells. A new project seeks to explore why.

2. Recognizing 2015 Reviewers for the American Geophysical Union

Many reviewers of journal papers also give generously of themselves to the scientific community in other ways, such as advising on grants, promotions, and assessments of institutional departments.

3. Ocean Floor Networks Capture Low-Frequency Earthquake Event

Last August, stations on a newly deployed permanent ocean floor observation network recorded rarely seen, very low frequency signals from shallow earthquakes.

4. Evidence of an Extinct Ocean Basin Detected Beneath Greenland

An analysis of a seismic and gravity anomaly discovered in the middle mantle sheds new light on ancient oceans, the mantle's evolution, and ancient magmatism in the Arctic.


III. Science Policy

1. Your Science Is Your (Openly Shared) Data

Your data are no less important than your words.

2. Can Solar and Space Physics Students Find Research Careers?

Research shows that 80% of graduate students who received their Ph.D. between 2001 and 2009 continued to publish for at least 3 years, and 60% are still publishing.


IV. Climate Change

1. Science Academies Urge Stronger Action on Disaster Resilience

A separate statement calls for nurturing new scientists, promoting science education, and supporting women and minorities in science.


V. Planetary Sciences

1. How on Earth to Decide Where on Mars to Land?

The Public Lecture at AGU's 2016 Fall Meeting will feature three experts—including one still in high school—to discuss landing site selection for the Mars 2020 rover.

2. As Mars Gets Close, So Does a Blitz of Red Planet Dramas

NASA's first Mars program director advised the creators of the new film The Space Between Us, which opens this summer, on the science related to Mars colonization.

3. Could 3-D Printers Create Shelters for Future Lunar Settlers?

Test of a novel solar-powered printer yielded a prototype construction brick made from simulated lunar soil.


VI.Earth and Space Science

1. Arctic sea ice loss likely not a factor in recent Northern Hemisphere cold winters, study finds

 

Arctic sea ice loss is a major factor behind the warming Arctic, but melting sea ice is probably not behind recent cold winters in parts of Europe, Asia, and the United States, according to new research published in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union.


VII. Geophysical Research Letters

1. First Multipoint in Situ Observations of Electron Microbursts: Initial Results from the NSF FIREBIRD-II Mission

We present initial dual spacecraft observations that for the first time both constrain the spatial scale size and provide spectral properties at medium energies of electron microbursts. We explore individual microburst events that occurred on 2 February 2015 using simultaneous observations made by the twin CubeSats which comprise the NSF Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Bursts: Intensity, Range, and Dynamics (FIREBIRD-II) mission [Spence et al., 2012; Klumpar et al., 2015]. During these microburst events, the two identically instrumented FIREBIRD-II CubeSats were separated by as little as 11 km while traversing electron precipitation regions in low Earth orbit. These coincident microburst events map to size scales >120 km at the equator. Given the prevalence of coincident and non-coincident events we conclude that this is of the same order of magnitude of the spatial scale size of electron microburst, an unknown property that is critical for quantifying their overall role in radiation belt dynamics. Finally, we present measurements of electron microbursts showing that precipitation often occurs simultaneously across a broad energy range spanning 200 keV to 1 MeV, a new form of empirical evidence that provides additional insights into the physics of microburst generation mechanisms.

2. Extratropical cyclone classification and its use in climate studies

Extratropical cyclones have long been known to be important for mid-latitude weather. It is therefore important that our current state-of-the-art climate models are able to realistically represent these features, in order that we can have confidence in how they are projected to change in a warming climate. Despite the observation that these cyclones are extremely variable in their structure and features, there have, over the years, been numerous attempts to classify or group them. Such classifications can provide insight into the different cloud structures, airflows, and dynamical forcing mechanisms within the different cyclone types. This review collects and details as many classification techniques as possible, and may therefore act as a reference guide to classifications. These classifications offer the opportunity to improve the way extratropical cyclone evaluation in climate models is currently done by giving more insight into the dynamical and physical processes that occur in climate models (rather than just evaluating the mean state over a broad region as is often done). Examples of where these ideas have been used, or could be used, are reviewed. Finally, the potential impacts of future climate changes on extratropical cyclones are detailed. The ways in which the classification techniques could improve our understanding of future changes in extratropical cyclones and their impacts are given.


VIII. AUG Newsroom

1. AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION EXPERTS AVAILABLE FOR 2016 ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON

WASHINGTON, DC — The 2016 Atlantic hurricane season officially begins June 1 and runs through November 30. Several members of the American Geophysical Union are available to comment on the science of hurricanes and their possible impacts throughout the upcoming season, including storm modeling and prediction, how climate change affects storms, historic hurricane activity, the evolution of coastal systems, storm impacts, damage mitigation and rebuilding.